Little Women Podcast Transcript:
Merry meet little women fans! Welcome to the second season of Small umbrella in the rain. New episode every Thursday for the next 12 weeks.
Today´s comment shutout goes to Melodie. This is what she says:
I wish, instead of remaking “Little Women” into a story where Jo is happy as a spinster, they’d give us a movie about Louisa May Alcott and Henry David Thoreau. I want to see THAT story! Maybe folks would understand that Friedrich was the real prize then. And maybe they could understand better that Louisa did not remain unmarried because she wished it. She needed meeting of the minds, mutual respect sort of love.
It’s my experience that Jo and Laurie shippers are usually folks who haven’t read the book. Or, if they read it, it was when they were very young and it was still only as a companion to the 1994 movie. I love your comparison to “The Notebook.” I’m always horrified when I hear that’s someone’s idea of romantic. It’s so toxic. And Jo and Laurie together would be just that. I think one of the beautiful things about “Little Women” is it shows the difference between immature and mature love. When we are young, love often looks like what Jo and Laurie had. I think Laurie just wanted to be in love, so he latched onto the idea of Jo. It’s hard to see it this way, though, because of the movie portrayal. How do you say no to a young and beautiful Christian Bale?!
Melodie, I agree 100%. Perhaps the problem is not the way the book is written, but that society at large romanticizes that type of toxic behavior. Louisa found Henry very attractive even though he wasn´t conventionally attractive but it wasn´t just about his looks but the connection that they shared. Laddie Wisniewski, who was one of the real life Lauries. He was conventionally attractive but he and Louisa didn´t have that connection.
Romanticizing possessive behavior in a male character runs very deeply in our culture. There are double standards, because when a man is pursuing the woman, no matter what the woman says, lot of people think it´s romantic, but when a woman does the same to a man, she is automatically labeled as crazy. This episode is about the similarities between Goethe´s novel, The Sorrow´s of young Werther and Laurie´s character arc in Little Women, and especially how Jo´s and Laurie´s relationship can be directly traced into Goethe´s novel.
There will be mentions of suicides. If this is a topic that triggers you, use your own judgement how to proceed. It is not going to be overly explicit, but it can be a difficult topic for some people.
This episode is sponsored by Audible. If you wish to find unlimited amount of books to read and podcasts to listen you can get 1 month free trial by clicking the affiliate link in the description https://amzn.to/3uFSyNf and if you are looking to something to listen on Audible I can recommend The Sorrows of young Werther and other Goethe´s novels. To me, in terms of my character research . reading Goethe helped me to understand Laurie´s character a lot more, and also it made me understand the transcendentalist world view and their belief system better, because Goethe was one of their heroes and they believed that nature was manifestation of god and this is an idea that Goethe writes a lot in his novels and because he was Louisa´s favorite writer as well, it has helped me to understand Louisa more as a person.
Louisa May Alcott and Goethe
Johan Wolfgang von Goethe was one of the most praised German authors of his time. Louisa May Alcott was a big Goethe fan. Louisa was a transcendentalist. The whole world view of the transcendentalists could be described as nature-centric form of Christianity and it was based on German philosophy and German romanticism. Goethe was one of the most important literal inspirations for the transcendentalists because he captured the essence of their beliefs into poetic form.
Louisa, according to her own words "grew up hearing stories of Goethe on her father´s knee". Bronson Alcott´s library included contemporary translation of Goethe´s biography and we can assume that it was one of the first books that Louisa read. One of Louisa´s most famous literal characters, Laurie from Little Women, is partially based on Goethe and Goethe´s literal heroes (Doyle).
Goethe was born into great wealth. His father was a doctor of jurisprudence and came from prestigious family from Frankfurt. Goethe was home schooled. He had tutors and he studied history, mathematics, music, languages, dancing and fencing. Goethe was fluent in French, a language he spoke as well as his native German.
At the age of 16 Goethe began to study law in the university of Leipzig but he mostly focused on deepening his love for literature and partying.
After graduating as the licentiate of law in 1771 Goethe worked as a lawyer in Frankfurt for a while. Around the same time he began to receive more fame as an author. Goethe published his first novel the Sorrows of Young Werther at the age of 24 and it became a massive best-seller. At the time "Werther" was the second most sold book in Germany, only surpassed by the German Bible.
Sturm und Drang /Stress and Thunder
Goethe was one of the most prominent figures of the German Sturm und Drang movement. Sturm und Drang refers into deep emotional stress. The name of the movement originates from a play called Sturmn und Drang written by Friedrich Maximilian von Klinger. Two most prominent figures of the movement were Goethe and Friedrich Schiller and the movement effected to the German art world, music, literature and theater.
Louisa described herself as "a creature of moods" so finding an author who managed to capture Louisa´s own emotional stress into words must have been both exiting and comforting. In Little Women Laurie, Jo and Friedrich can be described as Goethean characters, Laurie notably the most. We can trace Laurie´s character arc in Little Women to two Goethe´s novels: "Sorrows of young Werther" and "Wilhelm Meister´s apprenticeship" and to Goethe himself.
In Little Women Laurie is born into great wealth. He lives with his grandfather and he has a home tutor, Mr Brooke. In boarding school he studied fencing and dancing. In college Laurie is a party boy and not very interested in the world of academics (unlike Jo). Laurie is also fluent in French. He has, most of the time, nice manners and he is a talented musician. Laurie is very temperamental. He was born out of a forbidden marriage, between his American father and Italian mother, and this is one of the reasons why he struggles to bond with his grandfather, and they both feel great deal of resentment towards one another when Laurie moves to live with him.
Sorrows of Young Werther
Sorrows of young Werther is a novel written in a letter form. This is an important fact because this makes an immediate effect to the reader. There is no narrator. Letters are written by Werther and addressed to his friend Wilhelm. Werther is a story of a young man who falls in love to Charlotta "Lotte", who is engaged to another worthy man, Albert. Werther suffers from constant emotional stress and he also has quite a temper.
In the beginning of the novel Werther travels to the countryside. He is impressed by the unpretentious country people and envies their happy and simple life style. Often he wonders what is the secret of their happiness, since they have way less than he has. Werther spends great deal of time thinking the meaning of life and he is a great admirer of beauty and the natural world. He spends his time writing and drawing the things he sees. Nature comforts him and that is where he feels happy and safe.
When Werther meets Lotte for the first time he is invited to her home and he sees her feeding her younger sisters and brothers and what Werther is attracted is the feeling of warmth and home that he sees around him. Something that he doesn´t seem to have in his own urban home.
Same happens in Little Women, when Laurie meets the March family for the first time and Jo sees the "hungry look in his eyes" when he looks at her family.
Amy is in there
Louisa´s younger sister May, was a talented professional artist but perhaps Louisa was also inspired by Werther´s artistic talents.
"I am so happy, my dear friend, so absorbed in the exquisite sense of mere tranquil existence, that I neglect my talents. I should be incapable of drawing a single stroke at the present moment; and yet I feel that I never was a greater artist than now. When, while the lovely valley teems with vapour around me, and the meridian sun strikes the upper surface of the impenetrable foliage of my trees, and but a few stray gleams steal into the inner sanctuary, I throw myself down among the tall grass by the trickling stream; and, as I lie close to the earth, a thousand unknown plants are noticed by me: when I hear the buzz of the little world among the stalks, and grow familiar with the countless indescribable forms of the insects and flies, then I feel the presence of the Almighty, who formed us in his own image, and the breath of that universal love which bears and sustains us, as it floats around us in an eternity of bliss; and then, my friend, when darkness overspreads my eyes, and heaven and earth seem to dwell in my soul and absorb its power, like the form of a beloved mistress, then I often think with longing, Oh, would I could describe these conceptions, could impress upon paper all that is living so full and warm within me, that it might be the mirror of my soul, as my soul is the mirror of the infinite God! O my friend—but it is too much for my strength—I sink under the weight of the splendour of these visions!"
-Sorrows of Young Werther, chapter 1
We must talk about Fritz and Coffee
Friedrich is also in the Sorrow´s of young Werther.
The other day I went to the fountain, and found a young servant-girl, who had set her pitcher on the lowest step, and looked around to see if one of her companions was approaching to place it on her head. I ran down, and looked at her. "Shall I help you, pretty lass?" said I. She blushed deeply. "Oh, sir!" she exclaimed. "No ceremony!" I replied. She adjusted her head-gear, and I helped her. She thanked me, and ascended the steps.
- Sorrows of young Werther
In Little Women when Jo sees Friedrich for the first time he is helping a poor servant girl to carry a heavy hold of coal and this makes a good impression on Jo.
Werther´s body type is more similar to Friedrich than Laurie. Laurie is described to be skinny and androgynous young man. Werther on the other hand is a tall, solidly build man with broad shoulders. He has blue eyes and a fine forehead. Similar to the way Friedrich is described to look like in Little Women. Louisa was attracted to very masculine looking Teutonic heroes and all her romantic interests in her novels look like Werther/Goethe.
In Little Women, Jo and Friedrich have a very strong flirt game and it´s often connected to coffee. When Friedrich comes to court Jo, Jo tells to Hannah to make coffee because "Friedrich..I mean professor Bhaer, doesn´t like tea". Jo would love to make German foods for Fritz but she is not a great cook and she is sad, but he constantly praises her how she makes the best coffee. They are adorable.
Werther, never fails to mention Wilhelm how much he enjoys drinking coffee with his new acquaintances and he writes these long descriptions how they all went to picnic and drank lots of coffee. I counted that coffee is mentioned at least 10 times. It seems that Goethe´s novels became Louisa´s early guides to Germany, and she did visit Germany on her first trip to Europe.
The novel is entirely written from Werther´s perspective so the reader does not get to hear Lotte´s personal thoughts or feelings about him and his behavior. Werther falls in love, but Lotte doesn´t return to his affections. Albert is described as a man who Werther respects but also envies. There is an element of ridiculousness in Werther´s behavior and his emotional stress. He compares his mood changes into dark clouds and thunder storms. Both Werther and Laurie are written to be overly-dramatic.
Werther´s thoughts of suicide appear alarmingly often. Albert is worried when Werther jokes about it and when Werther defenses man taking his own life when the constant passions and feelings are never ending and he can´t escape them.
Laurie´s and Werther´s emotional stress is not caused by the broken heart. Their problems are caused by the lack of meaning.
Laurie was always told what to do by others. He was addicted to Jo´s maternal care, and because of that maternal care that Jo has for him, she was never able to inspire him to become a person who could make his own decisions and live his own life. Part of this is created by Jo´s sympathy to the masculine. She struggles to judge his behavior because of her soft spot for boys. We can trace this back to all the real-life Laurie´s being a lot younger than Louisa.
In the middle of the novel, Werther leaves Lotte and Albert and travels away. He gets a position as an ambassador´s assistant but the work does not satisfy him or the duties that comes with it. He struggles to fit into the high society because he feels that his individuality is being smothered by the "fake facade". He compares his wealthy associates to the poor people who were so kind to him. Werther sees that the nature of the person does not matter in the society, but only wealth and status does. Which leads into an inevitable conflict with the aristocrats and as a result he is reminded by his supporters that on such occasions going with the "whim of the society" is the way to go. Werther´s behavior becomes the topic of the gossip among those who have envied his position and Werther is so upset he would like to "stab a knife into his heart".
Goethe lived during the time when Neo-humanism became mainstream philosophy. One of the more important aspects of neo-humanism was the idea of "self". What is more important? the sense of self, the personal values and the moral codes, or in the end, is our value only measured by our wealth and status.
Jo wakes up to consider her own values
The idea of being "one authentic self" was part of the transcendentalist philosophy. Werther´s inner struggles, with his self-worth are being measured by things that he has no control over, like his family background. This is repeated in Little Women when Jo and Friedrich participate into the social gathering of artists, poets and intellectuals. Jo has a moment of clarity, when the people who she has been admiring from afar show the true nature of themselves and it is far from flattering. This becomes a pinning point between her and Friedrich, because his speech on religion goes right into her soul. Jo often despised the higher class gatherings and was even afraid to be invited into such events. This is caused by Jo´s own preconceptions about the higher class but also her unique sense of self and the way her parents have shown her the livings conditions of the less fortunate.
The idea of self, and self-worth appears in Jo´s and Friedrich´s discussion about writing, and when he reminds Jo that if she, Jo wants to be a successful writer, first she needs to find her own voice, and as a result Jo begins to search her own style.
This is where Werther and Laurie separate. Despite the fact that Laurie has grown up in the world that was filled with high class social gatherings, he is not against them. In fact he enjoys participating to parties and dinners. Amy has always enjoyed such gatherings. Laurie grew up in that world he neither has disillusions about it, but it is only with his relationship with Amy he begins to understand the privileges of his position.
Path to self-destruction
Quote from Liisa Saariluoma, professor of literature:
Even before Werther "falls in love" to Lotte, he knew that their love was doomed because she was engaged. For Werther being unhappily in love was something that he was pursuing from the beginning. Falling in love with Lotte, was a self-destroying path from the start, because Werther knew that even love can not save him from a life without a meaning.
Everything that Lotte represents to Werther, the warm atmosphere, the sense of home, or memories from his childhood and his first love, is secondary compared to his addiction for the emotional distress. Lotte can not save him from the conditions that he must live or that he refuses to find a meaning for his life, and instead he makes Lotte the only reason for his living, and their relationship changes from friendship to emotional blackmailing. Werther´s love for Lotte, is the same love he feels when he is with children or the peasants, because they erect something inside him, harmony, which is not something he has been able to find from the high society.
She said no
When Werther returns to Lotte and Albert, they are now a married couple. They treat Werther with friendliness but his moods are uncontrollable. He knew that the marriage was about to happen but it only fuels to his distress. The country idyll and the harmony that he was so in love with is utterly broken. Young woman who he was friends with had lost their child, and her husband had returned and lost their inheritance. A young peasant boy, a friend of Werther, has sexually abused his mistress. Even nature does not comfort Werther. Seeing the hazel threes he had admired with Lotte make him furious.
Lotte becomes angry at Werther accusing him for choosing her from all the other women, when he knew that she was engaged to somebody else. She and Albert try to calm him down, and she tries to figure out how they could make him to be more sensible.
"I can´t love anyone else, I can´t forget you Jo! never! with a stamp to emphasize his passionate words.
"What shall I do with him? sighed Jo, finding that emotions were more unmanageable than she expected. "You haven´t heard what I wanted to tell you. Sit down and listen; for indeed I want to do right, and make you happy" she said, hoping to soothe him with a little reason, which proved that she knew nothing about love". (Little Women, chapter tender troubles)
When Werther has made his final decision, Lotte is very nervous when she goes to meet him. In Little Women when Jo decides that it is time to tell Laurie to stop, she is very nervous. Werther reads Lotte death of Ossian, which is a poem by James McPherson and all the passages handle death and grief and they are very sentimental. Werther becomes very abusive.
"Everything passes away; but a whole eternity could not extinguish the living flame which was yesterday kindled by your lips, and which now burns within me. She loves me! These arms have encircled her waist, these lips have trembled upon hers. She is mine! Yes, Charlotte, you are mine for ever!
Werther doesn´t listen anything that Lotte says. He threatens her to say he loves her and then he shoots himself.
In Little Women Laurie says that there comes a time when Jo will find someone else, and he rather dies than sees it, and this is Jo´s brilliant response.
Werther the tragic (anti)hero
Werther was massively popular book among the German youth when it appeared. Young men even dressed like Werther, wearing a yellow vest and a blue jacket and it inspired thousands young men and women to commit suicide, and many were angry at Lotte for rejecting Werther. Does this sound familiar to Little Women fans?
Werther´s way to self-destruction is pervasive and all-compassing. His desire to live full-filling meaningful inspirational life is replaced with the belief that it can not be possible.
Werther´s inner conflicts have been often explained with his status. That his unhappiness is caused by the fact that he can not live a simpler life because he was born as an aristocrat.
More contemporary interpretation is that Werther sees no meaning in his life. In his biography Goethe writes about his inspirations for Werther, that the boredom towards life troubled his generation and the popular literature of the time was all about death and disappearance.
Emily and I discusses about this in our Laurie episode. It is a shame that Laurie´s character arc is missing from all Little Women adaptations, because the lack of meaning and not really knowing what you want to be or what you want to do with your life, that is a topic that lot of young people still today can identify with.
Falling love with the fantasy
In Little Women Jo actively tries to partner Laurie to each one of her sisters, because she earnestly wants Laurie to be her brother. First with Meg because "she is in the age", and in part 2 first to Beth, and later on to Amy (even before Jo knew that Amy and Laurie were re-kindling their friendship in Europe). For the modern viewer Jo´s desire to marry Laurie to anyone of her sisters, might come out as fear of committing, but the reason can be found from the proposal chapter. Jo at that point, did not know yet what love was, but she knew that she was not in love with Laurie, and that she wanted to be with someone who she could love truly and with her whole heart. Throughout the book series Jo is shown as a maternal figure who "saves" young boys from being lost, and in Jo´s eyes without her family´s care, Laurie will be lost.
Both Werther and Little Women, flip the pattern of the traditional romance novel, because the female protagonists wants someone better, a partner who is more suitable for them than the overly-emotional guy who is pursuing them and who´s advances make them feel uncomfortable.
Difference between immature and mature love
In Little Women when the reader moves from part 1 to part 2, all the sisters have grown but Laurie has stayed in the mental level of a teen-ager. He doesn´t like school, he doesn´t like to work. Jo has become quite tired with his behavior. She is always telling him how to act and behave. There are scenes in Little Women, where Laurie is frustrated to the way Jo is criticizing him, but he still continues to pursue her, even when he knows that Jo finds it annoying. Laurie is on a self-destructing path.
For Werther and Laurie, Jo/Lotte represents manic pixie dream girl. Manic pixie dream girl is character that somehow is expected to give the male protagonist whatever he needs to complete them and that love erases their troubles so they don´t need to grow or change, but neither Jo or Lotte are manic pixie dream girls, quite the contrary, they are individuals with their own desires and needs.
Laurie first tries to kiss Jo, when they are 15 and it happens when Beth becomes ill and Jo says no. His advances become more aggressive in Little Women part 2 and Jo starts to be afraid hanging out alone with him, which is why she travels to New York, where she meets professor Bhaer and she begins to develope feelings for him and he to her, but unlike Laurie, Friedrich respects Jo and he wants to know her true feelings for him, before making any kinds of advances.
When Laurie proposes to Jo he threatens to kill himself if she says no.
One of the best films of the recent years that depicts "Wertherian" behavior is 500 days of Summer. The entire visual narration of the movie is based to the emotional landscape of Tom, the protagonist. Tom is in love with the idea of love, more than Summer, the woman he is dating. There is a scene in the movie where Summer for the first time shows vulnerability to Tom and shares something deeply personal from her past, but her entire speech is mumbled, so we as viewers don´t know what she is saying and the only words that Tom hears are "I haven´t told this to anyone before". Tom hears the one thing he want´s to hear.
This is what Joseph Gordon-Levitt said about his character Tom.
"He develops a mildly delusional obsession over a girl onto whom he projects all these fantasies," "He thinks she’ll give his life meaning because he doesn’t care about much else going on in his life. A lot of boys and girls think their lives will have meaning if they find a partner who wants nothing else in life but them. That’s not healthy. That’s falling in love with the idea of a person, not the actual person."
After being rejected by Jo, Laurie travels to Vienna and there he tries to compose an opera for Jo, but no matter how hard he tries she never fits into the role of a sweet princess his mind wants to conjure (this has never been adapted into the Little Women films). This is why Laurie´s and Jo´s relationship was doomed from the beginning. Laurie doesn´t see women as who they are. He falls in love with the fantasy. He projected his fantasies and expectations onto Jo. He ignores the signs and warnings, and wants to live in his fantasy world. He tries to see Jo as a princess who he is going to save, but all things that he remembers are the most unflattering aspects of Jo. Since he is Jo´s best friend he should know what kind of person Jo is. This is also when Laurie begins to dream about a woman who looks a lot like Amy, and that is when he remembers the thing that Amy told him. That he is lazy and that she is ashamed of him. This is a huge turning point for Laurie. He leaves the daydreams and goes to find a work from his grandfather. Is Amy a manic pixie dream girl? no she isn´t, because Laurie sees Amy´s full reality and manic pixie dream girl, is never a real person. It is a male fantasy.
Goethe on Werther
Quote from Sarah Colvin, professor of German:
"Sorrows of young Werther brought Goethe enormous fame. It was hugely successful. There are elements of Sturm und Drang in it but more than that, it tapped into the cultural sensibility of the time. The importance of the heart, the importance of the emotions. An enormous audience responded into that. It sold out very quickly. It was popular for all kinds of reasons. Partly because you could decode it and people always love that.
Goethe, he himself fell in love to a young woman called Charlotte von Buff and the main character that Werther falls in love is called Lotte. That brought some embarrassment to the real life Charlotte and her fiance. In reality the relationship between Charlotte and Goethe was platonic, and he had a great respect to Johann Kristian Kestner, who is the Albert of the story.
Werther he kills himself in the end and lot of young men and women followed his example. Werther was badly misunderstood as a novel. Firstly because people didn´t understand that Goethe was actually criticizing the cultural sensibility in the character of Werther and secondly, it was read as an encouragement to suicide, which it certainly wasn´t. It was partly based on to a young man called Jerusalem, who´s story Goethe had heard and implemented to the novel. Jerusalem was a promising young ambassador´s assistant, who had had heartbreaks and disappointments living in the high society and who eventually took his own life".
Goethe was horrified by the wave of suicides that happened. Couple years later, he literally re-wrote Werther, this time in more critical tone.
Louisa was a consumer of Goethe´s novels since an early age. Because she had read Goethe´s biography she seemed to have a very deep understanding why Werther was not a character to be romanticized, but just like Goethe, Louisa noticed that giving Laurie this "Wertherian" character arc, in the end, took the attention away almost everything else in the novel.
Alf and Ladislas
It is difficult for us to understand it now, but when Little Women appeared Louisa received tons of mail everyday from young girls asking her to re-write the ending of the novel and marry Jo to Laurie. There is a scene in Jo´s boys (which is the last Little Women book) where Jo, who is now a famous writer, is very frustrated by these fans who send these requests and the fans who come to spy on her and leave disappointed when they see that she is a "gray woman in her 50s" and not a pretty 15-year old.
This is what Elizabeth Bankcroft writes, in her essay Alcott´s through 30 years, letters to Alf Whitman:
"Alfred, a motherless, lonely boy of 15, enrolled in Franklin B private school in 1857. The shy youth became great favorite of the Alcott girls".
Thirteen years later after Louisa´s death, Alfred published portions of twelve of her letters to him in the "Ladies home journal" permitting the magazine to announce that Laurie the beloved "hero" of Little Women, had edited them. Apparently up to then it had been generally believed that Ladislas Wisniewski, of Vevey and Paris, was the sole prototype for Laurie, but Alfred admitted that Louisa has written him, many years before that "Laurie is you and Jintly (that´s Ladislas). You are the sober half and Ladislas (who I met abroad) is the gay whirligig half".
I am not a native English speaker so I had to check what whirligig means.
Whirligig is a toy that spins round, for example a top or windmill.
I think I need to add that the word gay in the 19th century context, wasn´t always about sexual orientation. It meant a person who took care of their looks or looked dashing and dandy.
Louisa met young Wisniewski in Switzerland. He was very flirtatious with Louisa, who nursed him when he was ill. Louisa always spoke very highly about Ladislas in public, but in private letters between Louisa and her sister May they call him "boring" and they are frustrated that he does not take life very seriously. This is also why, I hardly ever believe any of Louisa´s public statements. She didn´t want anyone to know how heavily Little Women was intertwined with her own life.
We can only imagine Louisa´s frustration when her young fans would beg her to marry Jo to a dear friend like Alf, or Ladislas who was somewhat Louisa´s ex.
I can see why Werther was such a beloved character among young people in the 18th century, because he is written to be very endearing with all his messiness. Somebody also commented in a literal group that I´m part of that both Laurie and Werther, have these tragic elements within them that appeal to young people.
Thank you for listening.
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I´ll see you soon.
Make good choices!
Little Women, Louisa May Alcott, 150 years Penguin edition,
Muuttuva Romaani, Liisa Saariluoma, Karisto, 1989
Sorrows of young Werter, Johann W. Goethe, 1787, Book Beat
Singing Mignon´s Song, Christine Doyle, John Hopkin´s university press, Children literature volume 31, 2003
Alcott´s through 30 years, Letters to Alf Whitman, Elizabeth Bankcroft, 1957, Harvard Library
Goethe in our time, Sarah Colvin, BBC Radio 4, https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p003c1c8
How 500 days of Summer gets the manic pixie dream girl right, Movies under the surface, 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YI2i96G6Kwk&ab_channel=MoviesUnderTheSurface
Little Women 1994 film, Little Women 2017 series, and "Young Goethe in love" 2010 (in Germany "Goethe!")
sMALL UMBRELLA IN THE RAIN
Small Umbrella In The Rain is an on-going series of video essays, articles and podcast episodes that examines the different intersections in Louisa May Alcott´s Little Women.