When Laurie and Amy meet in Nice they have not met for four years and Laurie is impressed how much Amy has changed.
Amy was gratified, but of course didn't show it, and demurely answered, "Foreign life polishes one in spite of one's self. I study as well as play, and as for this"--with a little gesture toward her dress--"why, tulle is cheap, posies to be had for nothing, and I am used to making the most of my poor little things."
Amy rather regretted that last sentence, fearing it wasn't in good taste, but Laurie liked her better for it, and found himself both admiring and respecting the brave patience that made the most of opportunity, and the cheerful spirit that covered poverty with flowers. Amy did not know why he looked at her so kindly, now why he filled up her book with his own name, and devoted himself to her for the rest of the evening in the most delightful manner, but the impulse that wrought this agreeable change was the result of one of the new impressions which both of them were unconsciously giving and receiving.
Amy and Laurie spent a great deal of time together in the books. They went to picnics, dancing, sight seeing...and it has been always rushed in the films (or not shown at all).
Laurie is disappointed when he hears of Amy´s plans to marry wealthy Fred Vaughn and he reminds her of the Amy he once knew. Amy who valued love more than wealth. At the same Amy is disappointed by Laurie´s behavior. The way he dwells in self-pity and doesn´t even try to be useful. They both remind each other of something they had forgotten about themselves and that unleashes process of self-discovery in both characters and that has not been included to any previous Little Women movies.
BBC Amy x Laurie
Only adaptations (so far) that build more solid base for Amy and Laurie come from the 70´s. In the BBC production from 1970 Stephen Turner´s Laurie actually has a temper and more complex personality. Adult Amy is played by Janina Faye and the dialogue of their time together is lifted straight from the novel. Same series completely butchers Jo and Friedrich. Why it is so difficult to find an adaptation that would treat both couples with respect? Janina Faye also plays the child Amy and every time when an adult woman plays a 12 year old Amy the arguments between Jo and Amy appear more as cat fights and not arguments between a 12 year old little sister and 15 year old big sister.
I have written about Amy and Laurie in the 1970 series more detailed in one of my previous posts.
Richard Gilliland as Laurie
In the 1978 series Richard Gilliland plays the part of Laurie. He does not look at all like the book Laurie but his personality is closer to the book Laurie than any of the film Laurie´s. He has a temper, insecurities and the series shows tricky relationship he has with his grandfather. Susan Dei´s Jo is the most feminine Jo in the history of Jo´s. She is extremely submissive around Laurie. We also get quite possibly world´s most entertaining Mr Bhaer in the form of William Shatner. Ann Dusenberry plays both child and adult Amy. Amy is taken bit too over-the top and Jo appears more as a saint compered to her. Series still manages to build a good base for Amy´s and Laurie´s relationship.
Amy and Laurie in Movies
It would appear that film makers have not been that interested on building Amy´s and Laurie´s relationship. In the 1933 film we get a full half-minute of Amy and Laurie in Europe together. Character arcs of neither one are included. In the 1949 film Amy and Laurie do not share any scenes together. They only appear together in film posters. Amy gets blamed on two things; stealing Laurie and stealing Jo´s trip to Europe. Movies have never adapted chapter calls and they just leave Amy and Laurie hanging. In 1933 and 1949 films aunt March and Amy just pop into New York to tell Jo that they are going to Europe and in both films Jo goes to New York after she has friend zoned Laurie and when she hears that Laurie has been in New York she is sad because he hasn´t come to see her (!?). In the book Jo went to New York because Laurie´s behavior made her feel uncomfortable!
Movie from 1994 is one of the most well-known Little Women adaptations. There are probably more people in the planet who have seen the film but have not read the books. Winona Ryder who plays Jo has great chemistry with both Christian Bale who plays Laurie and Gabriel Byrne who plays Friedrich. In an interview Robin Swicord who was one of the script writers of the 1994 film was asked about the sudden change in Amy´s character and she replied it is not until we get rid of the bitch-naming culture we can achieve equality. I do agree with this statement (and I know movies always have time restrictions) but the 1994 film doesn´t do many favours for Amy´s character because once again Amy´s character arc and Laurie´s character arc are completely missing. The film heavily idolizes Jo and romantisises Jo and Laurie. 1994 Laurie doesn´t have a temper so when Winona Ryder´s Jo says they would kill each others (if they would marry) it is hard to believe that because he doesn´t have a temper! Dialogue of the proposal is completely different than in the book. In the proposal scene Laurie has taken a job from his grandfather from London so that he and Jo could move there. The book Laurie is not at all interested from having a job and the main reason he is proposing Jo is that Jo could keep telling him what to do with his life. In the book it was Friedrich who had taken a job from another state so that he could provide a home and a future for Jo.
Scene where Laurie says he has always meant to marry a March girl has made many to believe that Amy is some kind of second prize but he does´t say anything like that in the books. In the 1994 film Jo writes to Laurie after Beth´s death and asks him to come back to Concord. Jo does not do this in the book. In the book Laurie sends Jo a letter right after Beth´s death and proposes her for the second time right after when he has realized that he has romantic feelings towards Amy.
Laurie had two real-life inspirations. First one was Louisa´s good friend Alf Whitman who she used to act with in the Concord dramatic union. When they met Whitman was 15 years old and Louisa was 25 and they remained friends through out their lives. Alf also knew May and the age difference between May and Alf was only 2 years and they were close friends. Based to the letter exchange between the two they both seemed to have rather care-free personalities same way as Amy and Laurie. Second inspiration for Laurie was a young man called Ladislas Wisniewski. Louisa met Ladislas in Switzerland where she was working as a companion to a wealthy woman called Anna Weld. Louisa was in her 30´s at the time. The age difference between Louisa and Ladislas was 13 years. Louisa gave him a nickname Laddie. Laddie was a military man from Poland and an aspiring pianist. There is very little information about Laddie. He has been described to be a flirtatious prankster and he was romancing Louisa but it would seem that Louisa´s feelings towards him were more maternal. Laddie used to call her as his little mama. Some time later May also met Laddie in Europe and he showed her around. Neither Louisa or May married Laddie or Alf. "Laddie" and "lad" were umbrella terms that Louisa used as nicknames for young boys and young men (Reisen). Ladislas was not the only laddie but he and Alf were the "laurie-laddie´s". I read some of the letters that Louisa had written for Laddie and Alf where she told them that she was going to immortalize them into Laurie´s character and the impression that I got was that in Laurie she wanted to capture the essence of youth and the essence of boyhood.
Coming of age novel
Little Women was a commission by Louisa´s publisher Thomas Niles to write a book for girls that would include morals and advice on good marriages. Louisa was´t sure if she herself could write such a book because she was´t used to writing children´s novels and she did´t really have experiences on young girls beside her sisters. As we know little women became a best seller. The structure of the book that Niles ordered was Bildungsroman. Bildungsroman is a literary genre that has it´s focus on the psychological and moral growth of the protagonist from youth to adulthood. Louisa was more than familiar with this genre because Goethe´s Wilhelm Meister´s apprenticeship was the start of it. Therefore Little Women is a story of identity with romantic subplots.
Louisa herself was´t that interested from the marriage question not because she would have despised marriage as an institution but because she wished that young girls would be more interested for getting themselves an education or doing meaningful work (whether they got married or not). Louisa was also advocate for girls marrying for love and not for money and not marrying too young. All March sisters are over 21 when they get married. It is also possible that she planned Amy and Laurie to become an item quite early on. Amy knows that she wants to marry a rich man. Laurie is wealthy and Jo wants to keep Laurie in the family as her brother and May also knew both real-life Laurie´s. As much as I sometimes get frustrated by the whole TeamBhaer/TeamLaurie/TeamSpinster debate, I don´t think that Little Women would have been that well-known, successful, beloved and studied book without it´s romantic subplots.
Friedrich as the anti-Laurie
Friedrich´s character tells probably more about his creator than any other character in Little Women. We can even see Laurie and Fritz as different aspects of Jo/Louisa. Laurie is the masculine energy of youth and Fritz is the academia and the mature emotional intelligence. Differences between Jo and Laurie rise when they are called to conform. From the start Jo is represented as a strong minded person with high-level intellectual curiosity where as Laurie takes education for granted. He goes to college to full-fill his grandfather´s dreams and partially Jo´s dreams as well but not his own dreams. Once again this is not a character flaw he is just a different type of person. From a very young age Jo has high work ethics and she has been raised on a very politically aware household. Value of work and social justice are not things that Laurie is that much interested which can be easily explained with his background but we never see that in film and tv adaptations and they have never really shown Jo´s and Laurie´s differences because his character arc is never there, his flaws are downplayed and Amy suffers from the opposite reduction-ism.
Because we never see Laurie´s pranks and the proposal dialogue is always changed we never see how much later Laurie matures compared to the sisters. Jo is looking for love and acceptance and validation for her unique sense of individualism. With Friedrich´s character Louisa makes a bold statement on class and wealth and she subverted the social expectations of a romantic interest. Man who Jo falls in love with is a poor scholarly immigrant during the time when there was deeply rooted antagonism towards European immigrants. Louisa gave him feminine qualities that she herself appreciated in a man and many of the real-life Friedrich´s who Louisa was attracted to possessed them as well. Louisa writes shamelessly little about Friedrich but everything we learn about him shows that he is a good match for Jo. He is enthralled by Jo´s intellectual curiosity and he is not threatened by it (unlike most men of the time).
Movies like to hammer down Friedrich´s positive impact on Jo´s writing and he does that in the book as well but it is not that straight-forward. In New York Jo enters to the publishing world which is male-dominated. She blindly obeys the editors at the Weekly Volcano and her sensational story is cut to one-third of it´s original length. Jo herself is extremely ashamed of sensational writings and she is jaded by the experience. When Friedrich expresses his dislike over sensational writings he only confirms what Jo herself has been thinking. Some people dislike Fritz because of this but the real reason is probably because Friedrich is a man. As a result Jo takes more critical view on her writings and feels more encouraged to try different aspects of storytelling and eventually she finds her own literal style. Friedrich is not criticising Jo as a writer. He is criticising the genre. LMA herelf labeled her sensational writings as rubbish. I personally enjoy Louisa´s sensational stories as I enjoy Little Women as well..which she famously called moralistic babble. That we as readers enjoy something doesn´t mean that it was something the author highly appreciated. When Laurie proposes to Jo, Jo says that Laurie would hate her scribbling which gives an impression that Laurie isn´t that exited about Jo´s writing career.
Louisa was frustrated by the little girls who were obsessed with the idea of Jo marrying Laurie. She originally didn´t plan to marry off any of the sisters when she was first given the job but when the request became more specific she started to plan an unconventional love interest for her unconventional protagonist (Showalter). Laurie perfectly captures the 19th century male ideal and if we approach Friedrich´s character as the polar-opposite of Laurie in the 19th century context Friedich is a funny match for Jo but not in this day and age.
Louisa gave Friedrich great deal of characteristics that she appreciated in European men that she wished that more American men would posses (Showalter). Friedrich has very emphatic world view, a quality that is stereo-typically connected to women. He has desire to help those who have been marginalized and discriminated. Interest for the social justice is something he shares with Jo. Jo´s seek for adventure and validation stems out from personal level rather than tearing down the patriarchy. During her growing pains she herself put women down. Yet Jo learns and grows. When Jo falls in love with Fritz it is not that surprising that she is jittery and nervous around him because with Friedrich there is a constant physical awareness that she never experienced with Laurie or anyone else.
Her internal battles are not either caused by the outside influences but fear of commitment. Friedrich goes through the same process. When Jo does fall in love it is not the feeling she is afraid but what people are going to say about her after she has been speaking about independence for a very long time. Her creator had similar problems. We are always more than eager to fight over the moralities of the female characters but what it comes to the male protagonists especially in Hollywood films men who are aggressive, broken, quick to violence are portrayed as desirable heroes and their possessive behaviour over women is over-looked. Hate that Friedrich sometimes receives comes from our own expectations of the masculine archetype which has been more than often coloured by the western media.
Nat x Daisy
Little Women and attraction
Laurie in the books is described to have androgynous and effeminate looks. Jo is also androgynous but she has sharper features. Jo in the books is never sexually attracted to Laurie, which makes it pretty crazy that so many adaptations have hired Jo´s and Laurie´s who have sexual chemistry. What Jo is attracted to is Laurie´s masculine energy and that in their childhood plays she doesn´t need to be a girl. Features that are traditionally seen more feminine that Laurie has, like his sensitivity bring out Jo´s nurturing side (something that came naturally to her). In New York when Jo meets Fritz she is really attracted to him and his masculine looks (he is more build like a viking). Gender fluidly continues in the sequels. In little men it is once again referred how Jo prefers more "manly" boys. Little Men also introduces the character of Nat who is compared to Laurie. Nat has more effeminate looks, he plays music and he is quite sensitive. In Jo´s boys Nat and Meg´s daughter Daisy are in love but both Meg and Jo are worried since they don´t think Nat is man enough to take care of Daisy because Nat is quite a dreamer and probably because of his effeminate looks. Jo however thinks that Daisy will be a good wife for Nat because she is steady and down-to-earth. When Nat returns from his trip to Europe and he is now more solidly built Meg and Jo give their approval. In Good Wives Jo wishes that Laurie could find himself a steady and a competent girl who could keep him grounded (sounds familiar?) The way Laurie was not used to making decisions also effected to the way Jo thought of herself. Which was something she wanted to change.
Slow and painful growth process
When Amy and Laurie are in Nice the role that Amy takes it is traditionally seen as more masculine. She is stern but not provocative. The adult Amy is quite a catch she is worldly and uses all the right words. She even gives Laurie good advice how he could win Jo´s love or at least gain her respect but most of all Amy wants Laurie to shape up his act for his own sake. At the same Laurie reminds Amy isn´t love better option than money. Amy´s lecture proves how much deliberately Laurie was feeding his heartache out of spite. She was right to lecture him and only one who got through him. Also to be noted Fred wanted to marry Amy despite of her being poor but because Amy was a true lady and Fred genuinely liked her. Yet the reason why Amy wanted to marry him was that she could take care of her family in her heart she knew that it was wrong for both Fred and her and Laurie reminded Amy to examine her own heart.
After leaving Nice Laurie went back to his grandfather. The relationship between the two has improved a great deal since he first moved to live with him but now it is even better because of the internal change that has started to happen inside Laurie.
Laurie and the opera phantoms
When he looked about him for another and a less intractable damsel to immortalize in melody, memory produced one with the most obliging readiness. This phantom wore many faces, but it always had golden hair, was enveloped in a diaphanous cloud, and floated airily before his mind's eye in a pleasing chaos of roses, peacocks, white ponies, and blue ribbons. He did not give the complacent wraith any name, but he took her for his heroine and grew quite fond of her, as well he might, for he gifted her with every gift and grace under the sun, and escorted her, unscathed, through trials which would have annihilated any mortal woman.
Laurie goes to Vienna to compose but as being said it does not go that well and it is easier for Laurie to give up the idea of Jo being the lead of his great operetta than giving up the idea of himself as a romantic hero. Now the phantom that looks like Amy has become part of Laurie´s fantasy projection but this time Laurie himself breaks this bubble.
He comes to the conclusion that he does not posses the genius. He goes through the same process that Amy did. He has talent but he lacks vision. Largely thanks to Amy´s candidness Laurie grows a great deal during this winter. One way of reading Laurie´s time in Vienna is to see it as a rite of becoming independent. He comes to the conclusion that he needs a real earnest job which he had never wanted to do before and that is when Laurie goes to work for his grandfather. 100 years of Little Women adaptations. Not once have they included Laurie´s growth process and his time in Vienna.
More film and tv Laurie´s
In the pbs series from 2017 Laurie was played by Jonah Hauer-King. Series received very mixed reviews from the fans. In an interview the screen writer Heidi Thomas said she never understood Jo´s chose of husbands. I don´t know... what about doing some research. This definitely explains why Laurie´s flaws are (once again) downplayed and why he doesn´t have a character arc. Series also tried very hard to make Amy an unlikable character. Friedrich Bhaer who for once looks like he jumped straight out from the book pages gets very little screen time. Both Jo x Fritz and Amy x Laurie relationships are left underdeveloped.
We need to stop pampering Laurie and let him grow like the book Laurie does.
Little Women film from 2018 is set to the modern day. Film builds a good base for Jo and professor and it also builds a good base for Meg´s and John´s relationship. 12 year old Amy is played by Elise Jones and adult Amy by Taylor Murphy and Laurie by Lucas Grabeel. Having two Amy´s is wonderful because it brings more nuances to Amy´s and Jo´s relationship (and is truthful to the books). Film once again portrays Laurie as a flawless character and does not include redemption arc he has with Amy. We see young Amy having a crush on Laurie but we don´t see them bonding as adults.
No wonder people have had hard time to get behind this pairing. Laurie´s flaws have been downplayed and Amy´s flaws have been highlighted. During this personal growth process Laurie is forced to ask some real questions about himself. Questions that he had been afraid to ask; who he is and what he wants from life. When Amy´s letter arrives where she tells Laurie she has rejected Fred´s proposal something moves inside Laurie´s heart. Films have cut it short but Amy and Laurie spent a great deal of time writing to each others and after Beth´s passing Laurie traveled to Vevey to be with Amy.
I personally always saw Amy and Laurie as a good couple. I believe Amy enjoyed Laurie´s fun loving nature and he was able to connect with Amy on a deeper level and that he realized that Amy´s bubbly personality was healthier for him than Jo (who in many way would have been toxic for him as a partner) and Amy did not scoff Laurie about the perks of his position but simply pushed him to be better. There is no power play in Amy´s and Laurie´s relationship. She filled his desire to be the swashbuckling romantic hero but Laurie no longer sees women in his life as shallow dream spirits. For most of his life Laurie felt like he was lacking purpose. Amy and Laurie became a philanthropist couple who helped those with musical and artistic talents to reach their full-potential and they pushed each others to reach their full-potential. Amy can continue creating her own art without the financial pressure and already in the beginning of good wives we saw that she had a natural talent for organizing events. Modern day Amy could be a gallerist or an art director. Amy´s and Laurie´s relationship entirely parallels with Jo´s and Friedrich´s relationship and John´s and Meg´s relationship there is space for growth and the other person pushes you to be better. When Laurie falls in love with Amy he tries to rationalize it but it is not something one can really rationalize. One could already see hints from that before Laurie went to Vienna there were times when they were quite bashful around each others. By the end of Good Wives Laurie has become full-partner with Amy´s charity enterprises.
“He had rather imagined that the denouement would take place in the chateau garden by moonlight, and in the most graceful and decorous manner, but it turned out exactly the reverse, for the matter was settled on the lake, at noonday, in a few blunt words. They had been floating about all the morning, from gloomy St. Gingolf to sunny Montreux, with the Alps of the Savoy on one side, Mont St. Bernard and the Dent du Midi on the other, pretty Vevey in the valley, and Lausanne upon the hill beyond, a cloudless blue sky overhead, and the bluer lake below, dotted with the picturesque boats that looked like white-winged gulls. They had been talking of Bonnivard, as they glided past Chillon, and of Rousseau, as they looked up at Clarens, where he wrote his Heloise. Neither had read it, but they knew it was a love story, and each privately wondered if it was half as interesting as their own.”
When Laurie does apologies to Jo his earlier behavior now he does take the responsibility of his previous actions. Jo is delighted by these turns of events and now they can rebuild their friendship on honesty. Laurie gets lots of leeway in the films. Way more than he does in the books. Amy and Meg are more than often demonized for liking pretty things and are being called materialistic. Laurie was a fashion lover. He liked nice clothes and keeping up good appearance (and there is absolutely nothing wrong with that). He did spent money on useless things but he is not questioned for that same way as the girls do (Amy and Meg are poor) Laurie was a wealthy young man. Problems rise when reader heavily identifies to Jo´s character and the films so far have brushed off Jo a lot. The book does favor Jo a bit, after all it is a semi-biographical novel but it does not sugar-coat her either. In all aspects Amy is Jo´s parallel and the reason why they fought so much as kids was because they were so similar. Never forget Jo was amazed by the grace and classiness that both Meg and Amy possessed and she admired it. To certain extend the one-dimensional treatment of the characters in adaptations has created rather narrow minded approach to all other sisters except Jo and to some extend this has also happened with Laurie and Fritz as well.
Amy x Laurie 2019?
Little Women is a story about identity. When adapting a novel you can´t erase a character arc of one character without effecting to the whole story. Amy is not a bitch and Laurie is not an award. When I type Amy March to google I get headlines like "Amy March was a total bitch" "Why we like to dislike Amy March". I know it sounds like I have roasted all the previous adaptations. There are things that I like in all the previous adaptations (many things). I am very aware that it is only now that it is possible to make a Little Women adaptation that handles the gender fluidly themes of the novel and that movies always have time restrictions. But that doesn´t take away the fact that most of these previous adaptations could have at least tried to do a better job with both Laurie and Amy. I have heard many good things about Florence Pugh I believe she will do a good job. Gerwig´s film is going to lift more elements from the life of May Alcott-Nieriker to Amy´s character. I welcome this change because this idea that a feminine woman can not be ambitious and career-oriented simply because they like being feminine is completely outdated and irrelevant in this day and age. I have seen Call me by your name so I know that Timothée can pull emotional roles. Only thing that I worry is that they tone down Laurie´s temper again and don´t give him his character arc. Gerwig´s film has a bigger emphasis on book 2 and Amy and Laurie which is exiting. I read parts of the script. If they wont change it too much Jo´s character is less idealized and closer to the book as well.
I always thought it was quite beautiful the way Louisa created these two complimentary relationships. Jo and Fritz share the same umbrella. Amy and Laurie row the boat together. In a typical Alcottian style it highlights the equality in a relationship.
Last summer I was on a design fair in London and I saw this young man there. He looked like a dancer. He had golden copper skin tone and curly black hair. He was quite thin and had a very dreamy expression. I though he looked like Laurie from Little Women.
Every little women fan has their own Little Women narrative. Here in Finland book 1 and book 2 have been usually published separately (I think the newest ones have the two first books combined). I read the first book when I was 12 but I didn´t read Good Wives until I was 17. As a child I really liked Laurie. I didn´t like Jo that much. She had to grow on me. I like all the romantic sub-plots in Little Women. It´s actually one of the rare books where I am very pleased with the canon pairings. But the heart core of it is the bond between the sisters and it became an important book in the terms of shaping my own identity so when I entered to the online circles many years ago it was quite a shock how much hate there was towards all other characters except Jo and Laurie. I don´t think that was the author´s intention. On my next read I had really hard time liking Laurie. I hated the way he treated both Meg and Jo but I had a tendency to heavily identify with the female characters (I am not the first or the last person who has done that). When I read the book later as an adult I started to like Laurie again when I started to pay more attention to the growth process of the characters. Me and Laurie have come a full circle.
I want to give a shout out to the Attic series. They´v done better job developing Amy and Laurie than many of the Hollywood adaptations.
It´s not just about their tempers
Jo and Laurie stayed in a teen age mindset. The problem was not only their tempers but they were enabling each others good qualities. After Laurie forged those letters and hurt Meg and he asked Jo to run away with him. There is no project for the future. It was just another way to escape and not face consequences of his actions. It is uncanny how many people romanticize it (knowing that it happened just after he nearly ruined Meg´s and John´s chances). In the chapter castles in the air Laurie is moping how much he hates the future his grandfather has planned for him. Jo tells him just to sail away with one of his ships, play music and be a composer. Laurie was used to do what other people told him so he might have done it but Jo´s advice was pretty terrible because Laurie wasn´t capable to look after himself. Meg was the voice of reason and reminded Laurie how much his grandfather loves him. Jo was very blunt person and Laurie highly sensitive which can be a toxic combination. Fight me if you dare Amy was way more healthier for him (and Fritz much better for Jo because he was direct but much calmer person) Laurie thought he could earn Jo´s hand by graduating college and even that he did very lazily. Jo had already opened herself to the idea of loving Fritz which is why she defended him when Laurie proposed. Little Women is incredibly nuanced story. It has lots of characters. It is difficult to turn it into a film. I would like to see an adaptation someday (maybe a well-written series) that would handle Amy´s and Laurie´s struggles with infertility and their interactions with their daughter Bess.
I´ll make two more large meta´s like this. One about Fritz and another one about Amy. I´ll try to finish the one about Friedrich around Christmas and the one about Amy and her film and tv portrayals around spring.
If there is one thing that I am very exited with these new and more educated adaptations is that there is more appreciation for Meg, John, Amy, Friedrich etc and Little Women as a novel is interpreted from multiple angles. It covers several social themes; gender fluidly, education, immigration. It offers a window to philosophical and religious ideas of the time and handles different roles of women, personal growth, dedication for family, anger issues, falling in love, dealing with loss and finding your voice.
Special thanks to Angela, Sam, John, @ajesidth, @renee561, @sylphinthevaleofarryn, @thatvermillionflycatcher and @this-thrown-out-gentleman from thought provoking and enlightening discussions.
Little Women, Louisa May Alcott, Penguin Classics edition with Elaine Showalter introduction
Life lessons from Goethe by Adan Kirch, New Yorker, 2016 issue
Stella: A Play for Lovers (1776) (2018) English translation of Goethe's novel (Peter Land and Susan Gustafson)
Immortality, Milan Kundera, 1988
Louisa May Alcott, The woman behind little women by Harriet Reisen
Louisa May Alcott, her life, letters and journals by Ednah Cheney
Did the real Amy March get together with the real life laurie letters between May Alcott and Alf Whitman (Louisa May Alcott is my passion)
J.W Goethe, Sorrows of young Werther, Finnish translation (nuoren Wertherin kärsimykset) Translation by Markku Mannila, otava, 1992
Goethe´s correspondence with a child, Bettina Von Armin, 1837
Goethe and Bettina (from Goethetc)
Check out more of my Little Women meta:
Evolution of Laurie part 1 Meg, Jo, Beth and Amy (and the boy next door)
Evolution of Laurie part 2, the book Laurie
Evolution of Laurie part 3, Amy (and Jo)
Jo, Friedrich and the weekly volcano press aka what it takes to become a great writer
Jo, the adamant
Little Women 1970 Amy and Laurie Romance
We Germans Believe in Sentiment
Friedrich Bhaer Aesthetics
Equal Marriage Lost in Translation
Little Women 2019 Trailer (Long Rant)
Little Women 1933
Best Jo and Fritz fanfics you´ve ever read
Quest of Friedrich Bhaer and why my inner Jo loves him
He was attractive as a genial fire
Little Men and Tender Parenthood
Little Women symbolism of the umbrella
Thoughts on #TeamLaurie and #TeamBhaer
Pronounced as Nee-na.
Artist, illustrator, writer and a folklorist. Gryffinclaw. Comes from Finland. Likes cats, tea and period dramas.
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