Siberia is considered to be the heartland of shamanism. In modern anthropology, the term Shamanism refers to the spiritual practice of native groups. However, shamanism itself is not limited to Siberia. It is a universal practice where all major religions are based on. Siberia is a large area which includes a variety of cultures, languages, practices, and beliefs which many fall into the classification of shamanism and many of these ethnic groups practice shamanism still today.
In Siberian shamanism, there are some distinctive features such as worship of nature, belief for the world tree, an invisible pole that is a representation of the universe and three layers of the world (upper world, middle world, and the underworld). Many of these ethnic groups were hunters and lived a nomadic lifestyle. Hunting was a sacred ritual and in order for the hunt to success, the job of the shaman was to take shape of an animal and travel to meet the deity who was in charge of the hunting. The shaman would dress up as animals and mimic their sounds and movements.
There is lots of diversity among the sacred animals in Siberian shamanism. Among Samoyed and Uralic groups, a sacred animal was the bear who was believed to be the sacred ancestor of the tribe. In Mongolia and among Turkic groups stags and horses were most important animals. Among the Yukip, Nenetsi and the Saami´s reindeer was the sacred animal ancestor. The creation myth about the earth-diver is common among all groups whose roots are in Siberia and water birds play a significant part in the shamanic practice.
Origins of the word shaman are in Tungusia where it means the spiritual leader and the healer of the tribe.
Shamans and Shamanesses
In Siberian cultures shamanism often has strict gender roles.
For the tuvar´s shaman is ”Tatar”, ”Shor”, or ”Oyrat”.
In Yakagir language shaman is known as ”alman”, ”olman” or ”wolmen”.
Buryat shaman is known as ”Böö” (derived from old Mongolian word ”Böge”)
For the Mansi shaman was called ”Njat”.
Saami shaman is known as Noaidi. Saami word ”Noaidi” and Mansi ”Njat” are based on proto-Uralic word Nojta meaning a witch or a shaman.
Female shamans can be mainly found among Mongolian tribes.
For the Buryat shamaness is called ”Ugadan”, ”Evenki”, ”Lamut” or ”Ugudan”.
For the Negidal shamaness is called ”Odogan”.
In Siberian languages, there are many similar words meaning a ”shamaness” such as ”Utagan”, ”Ubukan”, ”Utygan”, ”Utusun”, ”Idan” and ”Duana”. Most of these words are based on ancient Mongolian earth goddess ”Etügen ”. She was also known as ”Etügen Eke ” the mother earth. Her name can be originated from Ötüken the holy mountain of the earth and fertility.
Speakers of Turkic languages
Turkic shamanism is practiced by ethnic groups who speak Turkic languages. These are Tatars, Tuvars, Tofalar, Yakut and Turks who live in the Altai mountains. Turkic shamanism covers large territories and the practice itself has been amalgamated with Buddhist and Islam beliefs.
Yakut Shaman. Notice the trinkets in the clothes. Fetishes represent animals and spirits who the shaman wishes to communicate with.
Area of the Yup´ik stretches from Eastern Siberia to Alaska and Northern Canada, therefore, there is lots of diversity in their shamanic practices. They believe in soul dualism and reincarnation. Soul of a Yup´ik shaman could travel between different levels to the underneath realms to meet supernatural beings and spirit guides asking for their guidance.
Shamanism of the Ket is foremost totemic. The lifestyle of the Ket is nomadic and shamanism is intertwined to Bear and deer hunting. They use lots of bones, skeletons and other animal parts in their rituals. Like for many Uralic people for the Ket waterbirds were sacred. Loon is an especially important bird, a totem animal and Loon´s bones are often used in ceremonies. They were shaman´s helpers in their journey. For the Ket shapeshifting is an important part of spiritual practice. Shaman goes off on the spiritual journey while drumming and dancing.
Young Buriyt boy
All ethnic groups that speak Samoyedic languages have elements of shamanism in their spiritual practice. Sayan shaman´s boot ´s, dress and headdress represents bones and human organs. The skeleton overlay of the dress symbolizes rebirth. Like all group´s who myths are based on Uralic myths for the Sayan´s loon was a sacred bird and a magical helper. Other Samoyedic tribes such as Nenets, Enets, and Selkup have different crowns and headdresses to be worn on different occasions. When a child is born the proper headdress represents the upperworld and for communicating with the dead headdress represents the underworld.
Reindeer is sacred animal for many ethnic groups in the northern hemisphere.
Saami´s are native people of Scandinavia (and the only ethnic group in the area of European Union). Saami´s live outside Siberia but their language is part of Samoyedic languages. There are elements of shamanism in the spirituality and folk traditions and customs of the saami. One of the most important parts of the Saami culture are the joiks. Joiks are wordless chants that were originally sung in shamanic rites. There are two types of joiks, clear joiks that are mostly sung by young people. Then there are mumbling joiks that are used while casting spells. These joiks often mimic natural sounds.
Speakers of Finno-Ugric languages.
Most speakers of Finno-Ugric languages live outside Siberia. Finno refers to Finnic languages such as Finnish and Estonian and Mari. In all these cultures there are elements of shamanism in the folklore and myths. In Pre-Christian Finland, shamanism had several phases. Noita the shaman was the spiritual healer of the tribe. Later on, there was a shift in the culture and noita became more individualized and was no longer a healer of the community but an individual practitioner of witchcraft/herbalism/healing. Ancient Finnish tribes believed in soul duality. Bear and moose were most common totem animals and there are lots of archeological proofs found from the widely spread bear cult. The world was divided into three levels and they were held together by an invisible pole, the wold tree.
In Estonia shaman was called Näit. Like in Finland also in Estonia worship of nature was an essential part of spiritual practice. Trees especially were worshipped as divine nature spirits. Other speakers of Finnic languages like Komi´s, Mari´s and Mordvan also have elements of shamanism in their spiritual practice. Folk religion also has elements from Russian Orthodoxism. Among all these groups nature worship, shamanic traveling and concept of the world tree are very common.
Ugric efers to Ugric languages such as Hungarian, Khanty, and Mansy. Early ancestors of modern-day Hungarians migrated from Siberia already 6000 years ago settling into the area of Pannonia Basin. Elements of shamanism have been preserved in folklore. Ancient Hungarians believed that world was divided into three levels and shaman had the ability to travel between these levels to seek information. In Khanty culture bear was worshiped as an important totem animal and as the divine ancestor of the people.
I´ve had a soft spot for Estonian mythology and folktales as long as I can remember. Essentially same thing that pulls me towards Estonian folktales pulls me towards all Finno-Baltic legends. Stories encourage people to examine their connection to nature and respect the invisible spirits that live around us. Here are some fascinating creatures from Estonian myths and legends.
Metsik the Forest Guardian
Metsik is the elf of the forest. In the primeval Estonian tales Metsik were wood elves that lived everywhere surrounded by trees, from shallow swamp forests to the coniferous woodlands. When Metsik appears to people they take a form of a wild animal, a bird or a handsome tree. Singing bird who truly is Metsik sings songs that humans can understand. They can also understand the language of the aspen tree that rustles in the wind for that aspen tree is Metsik. Metsik are the guardian spirits of the woodlands. They do not approve cutting trees, burning fires and above all trashing. When people enter to the woods with cruel intentions Metsik misleads them away from their sacred home.
Allikaravitseja The Healing Waters
Allikaravitseja is a healer spirit who lives in the hot springs. In the boiling waters there are also great amount of sand which can seemingly create form of a human body. Reflections from the nearby trees and bushes may transform into human figures as well. Spirit reveals itself to the one´s who is carrying a ritual. They toss a coin into the spring and name their concern. Spirit of the spring is also pleased when scraps of silver are left as sacrifice. Allikaravitseja rarely reveals herself but one can hear her voice which sounds like a whisper coming from the water.
Hiid The Giant
Hiid has two meanings in Estonian language. Hiid can mean a sacred grove, an old pagan worshiping place in nature. Hiid is also a king or a guardian spirit of the sacred grow. It is a giant sized elf who has a low deep voice and they speak all languages of humans, trees and the animals. Hiid can transform itself and take the shape of bull elk, high tree or a mountain. Sometimes Hiid can fall asleep for several years and turn into a hill. A giant boulder that no one ever recognize and wake him up.
Soovana The Saddened Mist
Soovana is the guardian spirit of wetlands. He appears inside the mist or a bog. Sometimes the mist takes unusual shapes which probably inspired the legend of Soovana. If bog turf has unusual amount of cranberries Soovana has cranberries growing in his hair. He is not to be disturbed for he experiences periods of sadness and melancholy and even picking cranberries might anger him.
Murumemm Mother of the Meadows
Murumemm is the protector of fields and farms. She is very interested from the well-being of people and shares old folk wisdom to them. Murumemm loves to take care of the land and doing things together. She is the care taker of bees which are her sacred animals. Murumemm is also a merry figure and she loves dancing.
Kivialune The Cave Spirit
Kivialune is a small-sized spirit who lives and meditates in stone caves. He loves silence and can be quiet and motionless for days and in the end he appears into his surroundings. He remains in the darkest part of the stone cave. To get rid of unwanted strangers Kivialune sends a large stone roll down from his location. He does not wish to harm the unwanted guest. He just wants to frighten them.
Saarevaht The Solitary Islander
Saarevaht is the keeper of islands. He feels connection to the sea and water. Saarevaht locates himself to remote places. Often he is the keeper spirit of the lighthouse. He communicates with plants and can transform himself into a fox or an eagle. He is a kind peaceful spirit and likes to show people around his home island. He gets angered by carelessness and rudeness.
Artist and Illustrator. Mythology and Folklore enthusiastic. Keen traveler. Comes from Finland. Likes cats, tea, and such.
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